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Ibritumomab Tiuxetan

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Niraparib Capsule

Formula Drugs

Niraparib is indicated as a maintenance treatment for the recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. This is usually used in patients who are in complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy. This medication is usually started within 8 weeks following the most recent platinum-containing regimen. 

The epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancers are diseases in which malignant cells form in the tissue covering the ovary or lining the fallopian tube. The epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancers form in the same type of tissue and are treated the same way. Sometimes, these conditions are caused by inherited gene mutations. The genes in cells carry the hereditary information that is received from a person’s parents. Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancers may not cause early signs or symptoms when signs and symptoms do appear, the cancer is often advanced. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Vaginal bleeding that is heavy or irregular especially after menopause
  • Swelling, pain, or a feeling of pressure in the abdomen or pelvis
  • A lump in the pelvic area
  • Vaginal discharge that is white, clear, or colored with blood
  • Gastrointestinal problems such as bloating, gas, or constipation

The ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system. They are in the pelvis. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries make eggs and female hormones. 

The fallopian tubes are a pair of long slender tubes one on each side of the uterus. Cancer sometimes begins at the end of the fallopian tube near the ovary and spreads to the ovary. 

The peritoneum is the tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers organs in the abdomen. Primary peritoneal cancer forms in the peritoneum. 

Niraparib is in the class of PARP inhibitors. This drug is a white to off-white and non-hygroscopic crystalline solid. This comes as a capsule that contains 159.4 Niraparib and is equivalent to 100 mg free bases as the active ingredient. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already approved this prescription. 

How does Niraparib work?

Niraparib is a poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) enzyme inhibitor. It is highly selective for PARP1 and PARP2. PARP1 and PARP2 are involved in detecting DNA damage and promote repair. Inhibiting PARP1and PARP2 enzymatic activity results in DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell death. This medication induces cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines with or without BRCA1/2 deficiencies. 

How to use Niraparib?

This medication is taken by mouth at bedtime to lessen the risk of nausea and vomiting. Each dose of this drug may be taken with or without food. Swallow the medicine as a whole with a full glass of water. Do not crush or dissolve the drug. Do not change your dose or stop taking this unless your doctor tells you to do so. If you missed a dose, take your next dose at your usual scheduled time. Do not take an extra dose to make up for a missed dose. 

The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to the treatment. Your doctor may start giving a lower dose with this medication and gradually increase it. If you vomit after taking Niraparib do not take another dose just continue your regular dosing schedule. Your doctor may reduce your dose or permanently or temporarily stop your treatment if you experience certain side effects. Be sure to tell your doctor about how you feel during your treatment with Niraparib.

What are the side effects of Niraparib?

Common side effects:

  • Heart not beating regularly
  • Anemia 
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Pain in the stomach area
  • Mouth sores 
  • Bloating 
  • Diarrhea
  • Indigestion or heartburn
  • Dry mouth
  • Tiredness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue 
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rash
  • Sore throat
  • Pain in your joints, muscles, and back
  • Changes in liver function or other blood tests
  • Change in the way food tastes
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Anxiety
  • Changes in the amount or color of your urine

Seek for medical emergency right away if you have a fever of 38 C or higher with chills or any possible signs of infection. If you have any other side effects that won’t go away, let your doctor know at once. 

Precautions 

  • High blood pressure is common during treatment with Niraparib and it can become serious. Your doctor will check your blood pressure and heart rate at least weekly for the first two months. Then, monthly for the first year and as needed thereafter during your treatment with Niraparib.
  • Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements
  • If you have signs of an allergic reaction, call your doctor right away and stop taking Niraparib. Some signs of an allergic reaction may include hives, trouble breathing, or swelling of the lips, mouth, throat, or face). 
  • Do not take aspirin or products containing aspirin unless your doctor specifically permits this.
  • Do not receive any kind of immunization or vaccination without the approval of your doctor while taking Niraparib.
  • Inform your doctor if you are pregnant or may be pregnant before starting this treatment. Niraparib may be hazardous to the fetus. Women who are pregnant or become pregnant must be advised of the potential hazard to the fetus. 
  • Use contraceptives and do not conceive a child while taking Niraparib. Barrier methods of contraception such as condoms are recommended for up to 6 months after the last dose of Niraparib.
  • Do not breastfeed while taking Niraparib. If you are breastfeeding women, inform your doctor before taking this prescription. 
  • You may be at risk of infection so try to avoid crowds or people with colds, and report fever or any other signs of infection immediately to your health care provider.
  • Avoid sun exposure. Wear SPF 30 (or higher) sunblock and protective clothing.
  • Drinking alcoholic beverages should be kept to a minimum or avoided completely. You should discuss this with your doctor.
  • Get plenty of rest and maintain good nutrition. Remain active as you are able. Gentle exercise is encouraged such as a daily walk.