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Coronavirus Disease 2019

Coronavirus Disease 2019

Coronavirus diseaseis an infection that has spread throughout the world. This is first identifiedin Wuhan, China (2019). This is an infectious disease. Coronaviruses are alarge family of viruses that may cause illness in humans or animals. Severalcoronaviruses reasons for respiratory infections which ranges from the commoncold to more severe illnesses. These diseases include Severe Acute RespiratorySyndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). COVID-19 is themost recent discovered coronavirus disease.

Why it is calledCoronavirus Disease 2019 or COVID-19?

In February justthis year, the World Health Organization released an official name for thedisease. It is called Coronavirus because its particles exhibit acharacteristic corona or crown of spike proteins around its lipid envelope.Formerly, this disease was referred to as the 2019 novel coronavirus or2019-nCoV. The name of this new disease was selected by the World HealthOrganization.

Signs and Symptoms

The most commonsymptoms of this disease are:

⦁    Tiredness

⦁    Fever

⦁    Dry cough

Some patients mayalso experience:

⦁    Diarrhea

⦁    Sore throat

⦁    Runny nose

⦁    Nasal congestion

⦁    Aches and pains

Some people don’tdevelop any symptoms or don’t feel any unwell and get infected. Most peoplerecover from the disease without any treatment; 1 out of 6 becomes seriouslyill with COVID-19 and develops difficulty breathing. People with cough,difficulty breathing, and fever must call for medical help.

How it spread?

This infection isspread from person to person. It may be through small droplets from the one whois infected through sneezing or coughing. The droplets can land on surfacesaround the person and objects. Other people then might catch the virus if theybreathe in the droplets from the person infected who coughs out. This is thereason why “1 meter or 3 feet distance” is important these days especiallyon infected people, even in people who are not sick.

How to protectyourself and your family?

Now that the virushas spread throughout the world, it is very important to follow the preventiveguidelines.

For yourself

⦁    Wash your hands. Wash them correctly byusing soap and water. Wash them for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water arenot available, you can use hand sanitizers.

⦁    Stay at home. Staying at home can helpflatten the curve. If you do need to leave home, you should follow some basicpreventative measures.

⦁    Boost your immune system. Your body isbetter able to fight off the infection if you have a strong immune system. Thisis the best time to focus on all healthy habits.

⦁    Stay hydrated, minimize processed foods,and eat enough micronutrients when you can.

⦁    Try to stay calm. Also with your healthphysically, you must take care as well of your mental health. High-stresslevels can take a toll on your immune system.

For your family

⦁    When you cough or sneeze, use a tissue orthe crook of your elbow. If you get mucus on your skin, clean it off at once.

⦁    Avoid touching your face or anywhere inyour house.

⦁    If you have a family member who is notfeeling well, avoid close contact with them and call for a healthcareprofessional for advice.

⦁    Regularly and thoroughly clean yoursurface.

⦁    Practice social distancing.

During theseuncertain and stressful times, we must maintain our emotional interactions withothers. You can still use text messages, video chats, phone calls to be part ofeach others’ lives. This, not the time to have sleepovers, travels, parties,playdates, or even small group gatherings.

How to help stopthe stigma related to COVID-19?

The primary successfactor in any response to communicable diseases is to trust the healthcaresystem. Here are some points on how to avoid compounding social stigma:

Words Matter

Certain words andlanguage might have a negative meaning for people and fuel stigmatizingattitudes. Words used in the media are very important. The words beingexpressed will shape the popular language and communication on the COVID-19.

Do Your Part

Social mediainfluencers, ethnic groups, or those who practice ethical journalism must worktogether to help prevent the spread of the disease.

Communication Tipsand Messages

Rumors andmisinformation contribute to stigma and discrimination. Correct misconceptionsand acknowledging that people’s feelings and subsequent behavior are real.Promote the importance of prevention and lifesaving actions. Facts, not fear,will stop the spread of this pandemic disease.

What is a communityspread?

Community spreadmeans people have been infected with the virus in an area. It includes some whoare not sure how or where they became infected. Communities can take steps tohelp limit the spread of the virus. You can restrict travel, close publictransportation and ban mass gatherings.

In Case ofCommunity Outbreak

What to do?

Put yourpreparedness plan to work and stay calm.

⦁    Limit close contact with others.

⦁    Stay informed about the local COVID-19situation.

⦁    Continue to practice everyday preventiveactions.

⦁    Stay in touch with others by email orphone.

Steps  on how to protect your children

⦁    Clean hands often

⦁    Avoid people who cough or sneezes

⦁    Clean and disinfect high-touch surfacesdaily (desks, tables, light switches, remotes, or doorknobs)

⦁    Launder items such as washable toys. Ifpossible, you can launder items using the warmest water setting.

Works and Schools

Stay at home if youcan and talk to your employer to discuss working from home or taking leave.Employers should be aware that more employees may need to stay at home.

If schools aredismissed temporarily, discouraged students and staff from gathering orsocializing anywhere.

FrequentlyAsked Questions

1. Is there a highrisk if you are in the United States?

The spread of thevirus has reached in the United States with confirmed cases at least 40,000.The officials in the US have warned that due to delays in testing in manyareas. As the number of confirmed cases increases, the officials have orderedresidents to stay at home.

2. What to do ifyou had close contact with someone infected with COVID-19?

Close contact issomeone who has been faced to face for at least 15  minutes or been in the same closed space forat least 2 hours with someone infected with the coronavirus.

Isolate yourself athome until 14 days after you were last exposed to the infectious person. Do notleave the house except if you will seek for medical help. Stay in a differentroom to other people if possible and wear a surgical mask when you are in thesame room as others. Use separate bathrooms and don’t go to work or school,public areas, and use public transportations. If these signs and symptomsdevelop, call for medical help right away:

⦁    Shortness of breath

⦁    Fever

⦁    Cough

⦁    Sore throat

⦁    Headache

⦁    Runny nose

⦁    Diarrhea

3. Are people witha certain medical condition have a high risk of the infection?

Coronavirus canmake anyone seriously ill. But, some people are at a higher risk. You may be athigh risk if you:

⦁    have had an organ transplant

⦁    have blood or bone marrow

⦁    are having certain types of cancertreatments

⦁    have a condition that makes you much morelikely to get infections

⦁    have a severe lung condition

⦁    are pregnant and have serious heart disease

⦁    are taking medicine that weakens yourimmune system

Here are the thingsyou should do to avoid catching the infection if you are at high risk:

⦁    Stay at least 2 meters or 3 steps away fromother people in your home as much as possible

⦁    By not going out or leaving your home to doshopping, exercise, or pick up medicine

4. Is it okay todonate blood?

Blood banks acrossthe country have seen donations scrapped because of the pandemic disease. Whilecanceled blood drives have represented the biggest hit to many blood bankssupply, the fear of contracting the virus has kept someone to donate blood. Youcan still go out and donate blood. Here are some things you need to know aboutgiving blood during this pandemic.

Blood-donationcenters are cleaner than ever. Precautionarymeasures are being practiced twice as it was before because of COVID-19.

You can’t get thevirus by donating blood. COVID-19is an infection in the respiratory and has no evidence that by bloodtransfusion, it is transmissible. People get it by respiratory droplets in theair after the infected person sneezes or coughs.

You should notdonate if you feel sick. Onlyhealthy people can donate blood. You must also be at least 16 years old andweighs at least 110 pounds.

Do not donate ifyou have been diagnosed, have been in contact, or are showing any symptoms ofCOVID-19. If you have beendiagnosed with the infection, you should wait 28 days after your condition hasfully resolved before you can donate. If you have been in contact with someonediagnosed with COVID-19 in the last 14 days, you can’t donate blood. If youhave symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, fever, or difficulty breathing,stay at home and call your local health department.

Donated blood is alifeline for;

⦁    people undergoing organ transplants

⦁    the victims of car crashes or otheremergencies

⦁    those who are cancer patients

⦁    those who may need blood products to boosttheir immune systems

5. What to do ifsomeone in your house gets sick with COVID-19?

The spread of thevirus is a person to person transmission rate. It mostly affects younger adultsnot just older generations. People who are infected with COVID-19 and don’tneed hospitalization are recommended to stay at home. But, it still leaves theirroommates and family at a high risk of being infected. The following are sometips on how to take care, someone, with COVID-19:

⦁    Designate personal space for COVID-19patient

The goal is tolessen the social contact, the length of time of contact, and the environmentalspace shared with a sick person on an everyday routine.

⦁    Home ventilation and good airflow

If a person issick, there is a release of the virus into the environment throughcoughing or just breathing. The virus stays in the hair for hours and istransmitted by droplets that fall rapidly and exists on surfaces. To lessen therisk, having a good airflow and ventilation is recommended.

⦁    Serving their food

All standard rulesare applied when it comes to food preparation. Washing hands and disinfectingkitchen surfaces are needed. If you will be serving their food, you can justleave it at their doors.

⦁    Keep the door closed and limit circulation

Keeping the doorsclosed of a sick person can provide an extra layer of protection. It is anextra precaution that there are no droplets left in that place.

⦁    Pet interaction

Limiting petinteraction benefits people in the house more than the pet itself. The dogisn’t going to get infected but it can act like a contaminated surface forother people to get sick.

⦁    Cleaning the house

Cleaning means theremoval of specks of dirt, germs, or impurities of surfaces. This is the act ofdisinfecting the surface using chemicals to kill germs. Disinfecting surfaceafter cleaning can lower the risk of spreading the disease. While cleaning, youneed to wear masks, disposable gloves and use diluted bleach solutions. Cleanyour surface as often as you can. When handling laundries of an infectedperson, use disposable gloves as well.

6. Is COVID-19 thesame as SARS and MERS?

Three of 7coronaviruses can cause much more severe and sometimes fatal. These have causedmajor outbreaks of deadly pneumonia in the 21st century.

⦁    SARS – was identified in 2002 which causedan outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome

⦁    MERS – was identified in 2012 which was thecaused of middle east respiratory syndrome

⦁    COVID-19 – is a novel coronavirusidentified in Wuhan China in late 2019 and already spread worldwide

References:

https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses
https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/Infectious/factsheets/Pages/novel-coronavirus-close-contact.aspx
https://www.cityofmadison.com/news/community-spread-of-coronavirus-covid-19-occurring-in-dane-county