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Tetrabenazine

Where it is used and how it works?Tetrabenazineis used...

Celecoxib

Celecoxib

What is Celecoxib and how does it work?
Celecoxib is used for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. This is a new generation non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) referred to as COX-2 inhibitors. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already approved this prescription.
Celecoxib works by blocking the action of an enzyme in the body called cyclo-oxygenase (COX). COX is involved in making substances in the body known as prostaglandins. Wherein, it is the response to injury and in conditions like arthritis. The prostaglandins cause inflammation, pain, and swelling. This drug reduces inflammation and pain by reducing the production of these prostaglandins. Celecoxib will start to relieve pain after a single dose. But, its anti-inflammatory effect will build-up over a few weeks of taking it regularly.

What is rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis happens when your immune system attacks the synovium. It is the lining of the membranes that surround your joints. The resulting inflammation thickens the synovium which can eventually destroy the cartilage and bone within the joint. The tendons and ligaments that hold the joint together weaken and stretch. Slowly, the joint loses its alignment and shape.
This is a chronic inflammatory disorder that might affect more than just your joints. In several people, rheumatoid arthritis can damage a wide variety of body systems including the heart, blood vessels, eyes, lungs, and skin. This conditions occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks your own body’s tissues. Unlike the wear-and-tear damage of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of your joints, causing a painful swelling that can eventually result in bone erosion and joint deformity. The inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis is what can damage other parts of the body as well. Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may include:
⦁ Joint stiffness that is usually worse in the mornings and after inactivity
⦁ Tender, warm, swollen joints
⦁ Fatigue
⦁ Fever
⦁ Loss of appetite
Early rheumatoid arthritis tends to affect your smaller joints first. It is particularly the joints that attach your fingers to your hands and your toes to your feet. As the disease progresses, symptoms often spread to the hips, shoulders, wrists, elbows, knees, or ankles. In most cases, symptoms occur in the same joints on both sides of your body.
Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle. So brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. This condition happens if the creation of new bone does not keep up with the loss of old Osteoporosis affects men and women of all races. But older women who are past menopause are at highest risk of having this type of condition. Healthy diet, medications, and weight-bearing exercise can help prevent bone loss or strengthen already weak bones. There typically are no symptoms in the early stages of bone loss. But once your bones have been weakened by osteoporosis, you might have signs and symptoms that include:
⦁ A stooped posture
⦁ Loss of height over time
⦁ Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
⦁ A bone that breaks much more easily than expected
Your bones are in a constant state of renewal. A new bone is made and old bone is broken down. When you’re young, your body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone and your bone mass increases. After the early 20s this process slows and most people reach their peak bone mass by age 30. As people age, bone mass is lost faster than it’s created. How likely you are to develop osteoporosis depends partly on how much bone mass you attained in your youth. The higher your peak bone mass, the more bone you have ‘in the bank’ and the less likely you are to develop osteoporosis as you age.

How to use Celecoxib?
Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor. You may take each dose with or without a meal. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to the treatment. You should not stop taking this unless directed by your doctor. If you suddenly stop taking the drug, you may also have withdrawal symptoms. To help prevent it, your doctor may slowly lower the dose of your old medication after you start using this drug.
Swallow the medicine as a whole with a full glass of water. Do not chew or crush it. Remember to take it at the same time and in the same way each day. Take the prescription exactly as it is given by your doctor. Your doctor may start you with a lower dose and increase it gradually. Do not take more or less than the given dosage. It may worsen your condition. If you missed a dose, call your doctor for instructions. Do not double the dose to make up for the missed dose. Let your doctor know if your condition gets worse or if it does not improve.

What are the side effects of Celecoxib?
Common side effects:
⦁ Nausea
⦁ Diarrhea
⦁ Headache
⦁ Upset stomach
⦁ Stomach cramps
⦁ Back pain
⦁ Muscle pain
⦁ Gas
⦁ Dizziness
⦁ Rash
⦁ Indigestion
⦁ Upper respiratory tract infcetion (sinuses, nose, or throat)
These side effects may persists, call your doctor right away if it doe not go away.

Warnings and Precautions
⦁ Before using this medication, inform your doctor if you have ever had an allergic reaction ot if you have any allergies.
⦁ This drug should only be used in adults. This is not recommeneded in people with an active peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, severe liver or kidney disease, and with heart disease.
⦁ In people with poor blood circulation and with a history of stroke or mini-stroke, this medication is also not recommended.
⦁ Celecoxib should be used with caution in elderly people, people with a history of heart failure, with swelling caused by fluid retention, high blood pressure, and with diabetes.
⦁ This drug should be avoided by women attempting to conceive. It may temporarily lessen female fertility during treatment. It may as well increase risk of malformations or miscarriage.
⦁ Celecoxib may cause drowsiness, dizziness, or visual disturbances. Do not drive or operate machinery until you know how this drug affects you.